Fair and Just Courts

On Circuit Courts, An Opportunity for McConnell to Show He Can Govern

Mitch McConnell should allow a vote on Kara Stoll, to dispel the fears he generated that he won't allow votes on any circuit court nominees.
PFAW

We're Finally Talking About 2016's Most Consequential Issue: The Future of the Supreme Court

Yesterday, in a speech in Texas on the importance of voting rights, Hillary Clinton made one of the most important remarks of her campaign so far: "We need a Supreme Court who cares more about the right to vote of a person than the right to buy an election of a corporation."
PFAW

Money in Politics Survey Shows the Toxic Legacy of the Roberts Court

Six years after the Citizens United decision, overwhelming majorities recognize the corrosive impact money in politics has on our democracy. Why doesn't the Roberts Court?
PFAW Foundation

Cornyn and Cruz Are Devastating Texas Courts

Waiting 15 months after learning of a planned vacancy before even beginning the process to fill it is hardly a sign of deep commitment to the federal courts in Texas.
PFAW

On the 7th Circuit, It's Time for Ron Johnson to Get Out of the Way

It is long past time to fill the nation's oldest appellate court vacancy, which has been open more than five years.
PFAW

Cornyn and Cruz Haven't Helped Their Own Judicial Nominee

Nearly three months after unanimous committee approval, a Texas nominee still has not gotten a confirmation vote.
PFAW

Harry Reid Calls Out Pat Toomey on GOP Blocking of Restrepo

Senator Toomey seems all too willing to sacrifice Pennsylvanians' interests to his party’s political goals.
PFAW

Judicial Elections and Government Integrity at the Supreme Court

It isn’t just judges who risk the appearance of corruption when they engage with funders.
PFAW Foundation

Diversity vs. Scalia at Marriage Oral Arguments

Bringing her own experience to the bench, Justice Kagan helps Justice Scalia with a point that should have been obvious to him.
PFAW Foundation

Are Conservative Justices Suggesting that Oppression Justifies More Oppression?

Historical discrimination against gays and lesbians warrants heightened scrutiny under Equal Protection, not continued discrimination.
PFAW Foundation

In Marriage Arguments, Scalia Overlooks the People's Role in Adopting Equal Protection

Scalia says judicial interpretations of Equal Protection bypass the people, but it was the people who chose to constrain themselves with Equal Protection.
PFAW Foundation

Justice Ginsburg Tackles Idea that Marriage Definition Has Existed for Millennia

Marriage as it existed for much of our nation's history violates the 14th Amendment, as does today's exclusion of same-sex couples from the institution.
PFAW Foundation

How Big Money In Politics Is Making It Harder For Criminal Defendants To Get A Fair Trial

When the Supreme Court struck down limits on outside spending in elections in the 2010 Citizens United case, critics pointed to a potentially huge public policy impact in issues ranging from environmental protection to tax policy to health care to voting rights.

But one impact of Citizens United has gone without as much public discussion as it deserves: It’s making it harder for criminal defendants to get a fair trial.

Last fall, the American Constitution Society released a report by two Emory University law professors illustrating that the big spending that Citizens United let loose in state judicial elections created a climate in which elected judges were more reluctant to side with defendants in criminal cases.

Joanna Shepherd and Michael S. Kang found that outside groups seeking to influence judicial elections — usually for reasons unrelated to criminal justice policy — often relied on “Willie Horton” style attack ads implying that targeted judges were “soft on crime.” The proliferation of outside spending and the attack ads that the spending bought, they found, correlated with a decrease in the frequency with which elected state appellate judges ruled in favor of defendants in criminal cases.

“Unlimited independent spending is associated with, on average, a seven percent decrease in justices’ voting in favor of criminal defendants,” they wrote. “That is, the results predict that, after Citizens United, justices would vote differently and against criminal defendants in 7 out of 100 cases.”

Shepherd discussed her findings yesterday at a panel convened by ACS, along with retired Montana Supreme Court Justice James Nelson, the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers’ Norman Reimer and Tanya Clay House of the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law.

Nelson, who was on the Montana Supreme Court when it famously ruled that Citizens United didn't apply to that state's unique history of corruption (Nelson dissented, saying the high court’s ruling applied to Montana, but took the opportunity to demolish the decision while he was at it), said he had lived first-hand the impact of big money in judicial races.

“The fact of the matter is that is when justices running for political office are attacked during their campaigns, it forces them to look over their shoulder constantly,” he said. “And I can tell you that from personal experience. You have to fight to make yourself vote the way the law requires you to vote. And most judges do. But it’s in these marginal cases where there’s a close call and perhaps the case should go to a defendant, it doesn’t go to the defendant.”

The groups spending money on judicial attack ads, he said, “really don’t give a damn about defendants’ rights. They really don’t care. What they want to do is to get somebody onto a court who marches in lockstep with their philosophy, or get somebody off the court that does not march in lockstep with their philosophy.”

Reimer sounded a similar note: “The fight is really about commercial interests. It’s usually about the plaintiffs’ bar versus the corporate interests, the unions, the conservatives. It’s about nothing to do with criminal justice. But because of the fear factor, that’s where you go after somebody.”

“I think we all need to understand and appreciate what’s really at risk here,” Nelson said. “And what’s really at risk is the fair, independent and impartial judicial system that most citizens in this country, and I think most lawyers in this country, simply take for granted. And if the dark money flows from Super PACS and the Koch brothers and RSLC and groups like them get control of the judiciary … That’s what this is all about: getting control of the third branch of government. If they get control of that third branch by spending their way to the top, then we’re going to lose that fair, impartial and independent judiciary that we’ve all come to expect and rely upon. Certainly criminal defendants are going to suffer immeasurably.”

Clay House pointed out that there is already “a different perception of the criminal justice system and judiciary among communities of color.” Pew found in 2013 that 68 percent of black Americans said they were “treated less fairly than whites” in the courts, while the majority of whites were oblivious to racial disparities in the criminal justice system.

Unchecked spending in judicial elections, the evidence shows, may be making that perception, and the reality, even worse.

PFAW

Clinton Recognizes the Key Role of Supreme Court Nominations in Protecting Our Democracy

The Clinton campaign talks about how her Supreme Court nominees would affect the right to vote and money in politics.
PFAW

Thanks, Mitch: Confirmed Judges to Skyrocket From One to Two

McConnell schedules a vote on one - and only one - judicial nominee.
PFAW

More of the Same, As Grassley Delays More Judicial Nominees

Grassley needlessly delays a committee vote on judicial nominees, just as Republicans have done for almost every one of Obama's judicial nominees.
PFAW

Where is Pat Toomey on Phil Restrepo's Nomination?

Five months into Pennsylvanian Phil Restrepo's nomination, Chuck Grassley has not scheduled a hearing. What is Pat Toomey doing to help?
PFAW

Mitch McConnell: Doing the Least He Can Possibly Do

Lest anyone think that Mitch McConnell hasn’t been paying attention to the judicial vacancy crisis or the Americans who pay the price when their cases are delayed or relocated, today everything changed: today Senator McConnell allowed a vote on … one judicial nominee!
PFAW